New Scandinavian laser PhD.

We congratulate Dr. Maawan Khadra on his PhD exam, passed on the 31 of March 2005. Dr. Khadra has been performing his research at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo.
This faculty was the first Scandinavian faculty to present a LLLT PhD when Dr. Shelly Khullar defended her thesis on REINNERVATION AFTER NERVE INJURY: THE EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL LASER TREATMENT, in June of 1997.

Below follow two abstracts from Dr. Khadra´s work.

Maawan Khadra, Nesrin Kasem, Ståle Petter Lyngstadaas, Hans R. Haanæs and Kamal Mustafa. Laser therapy accelerates initial attachment and subsequent behaviour of human oral fibroblasts cultured on titanium implant material. A scanning electron microscopic and histomorphometric analysis. Clinical Oral Implants Research. 16(2):168-175.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on attachment and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cultured on titanium implant material. HGF were exposed to gallium aluminum arsenide diode laser at dosages of 1.5 or 3 J/cm2 and then cultured on commercially pure titanium discs. Cell profile areas were measured after 1, 3 and 24 h, using scanning electron microscopy and an automatic image analyzer. The results were expressed as percentage of attachment. In order to investigate the effect of LLLT on cellular growth after 8 and 10 days, HGF were cultured on titanium discs for 24 h and then exposed to laser irradiation on 3 consecutive days. Colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and clonal growth rates (CGR) were measured. Cell viability was determined by Hoechst and prodidium iodide staining. Non-lased cultures served as controls. Morphologically, the cells spread well on all titanium surfaces, indicating good attachment by both irradiated and non-irradiated cells. Fibroblasts exposed to laser irradiation had significantly higher percentages of cell attachment than the non-exposed cells (P<0.05). CFE and CGR were also enhanced for the irradiated cells (P<0.05). Cell viability was high (>90%) in the irradiated and control groups, without significant differences. It is concluded that in vitro LLLT enhances the attachment and proliferation of HGF on titanium implant material.

Khadra M, Ronold HJ, Lyngstadaas SP, Ellingsen JE, Haanaes HR.
Low-level laser therapy stimulates bone-implant interaction: an experimental study in rabbits. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2004; 15(3):325-332.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser device on titanium implant healing and attachment in bone. This study was performed as an animal trial of 8 weeks duration with a blinded, placebo-controlled design. Two coin-shaped titanium implants with a diameter of 6.25 mm and a height of 1.95 mm were implanted into cortical bone in each proximal tibia of twelve New Zealand white female rabbits (n=48). The animals were randomly divided into irradiated and control groups. The LLLT was used immediately after surgery and carried out daily for 10 consecutive days. The animals were killed after 8 weeks of healing. The mechanical strength of the attachment between the bone and 44 titanium implants was evaluated using a tensile pullout test. Histomorphometrical analysis of the four implants left in place from four rabbits was then performed. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis was applied for analyses of calcium and phosphorus on the implant test surface after the tensile test. The mean tensile forces, measured in Newton, of the irradiated implants and controls were 14.35 (SD+/-4.98) and 10.27 (SD+/-4.38), respectively, suggesting a gain in functional attachment at 8 weeks following LLLT (P=0.013). The histomorphometrical evaluation suggested that the irradiated group had more bone-to-implant contact than the controls. The weight percentages of calcium and phosphorus were significantly higher in the irradiated group when compared to the controls (P=0.037) and (P=0.034), respectively, suggesting that bone maturation processed faster in irradiated bone. These findings suggest that LLLT might have a favorable effect on healing and attachment of titanium implants.

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